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Loss of balance

The human organism is in permanent interaction with its environment. If an environmental factor changes and acts as a stimulus on it, the organism must adapt to the new conditions. Consequently, substances are constantly being broken down, modified and restructured. In sport, this adaptability is the basis for a higher level of performance. Here the intensity of training provides the stimulus that triggers such adaptations. A specific strain causes the body’s various functional systems to lose their equilibrium (homeostasis). Upsetting the state of equilibrium is called heterostasis, which leads to catabolic metabolic processes. Central nervous, vegetative and hormonal regulation centres ensure that the organism returns to the state of homeostasis through anabolic (constitutive) metabolic processes. The reaction of cells or tissues to changed environmental conditions or damage is called adaptation.

Performance-based training is aimed at achieving the best possible athletic form at a specific point in time. The level of athletic performance drops after high athletic stress. A certain period of recovery is necessary in order to be able to perform intensive exercise again. The individual functional systems have varying periods of regeneration.

Fatigue resulting from physical strain can be divided into two categories:
– peripheral fatigue as a result of the strain on individual muscles or muscle groups
– central fatigue, which represents a general reduction in performance and function

 

List of sources

REGENERATION – THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE

Chronological sequence according to Georg Neumann, Ernährung im Sport (2014)8

4 – 6 minutesComplete replenishment of creatine phosphate depot in the muscles
20 minutesReturn of heart rate and blood pressure to the initial level
20 –30 minutesCompensation of hypoglycaemia after carbohydrate intake; temporary increase in blood sugar level
30 minutesRestoring the acid-base equilibrium; decrease in lactate concentrations
60 minutesDecrease in the inhibition of protein synthesis in exhausted muscles
90 minutesSwitch from catabolic to anabolic metabolism, from a higher protein metabolism to regeneration
2 hoursRestoration of tired muscular functions
6 –10 hours/ day 1Restoration of balance of fluids, normalisation of the ratio of liquid to solid components; replenishment of the liver glycogen levels
2nd – 7th dayMuscle glycogen replenishment
3rd–5th dayReplenishment of muscular fat reserves
3rd–10th dayRegeneration of partially depleted muscle proteins
7th–14th dayStructural build-up of mitochondria with impaired structures; gradual regaining of full muscular performance
1st–3rd weekMental recovery from stress of the whole organism, repetition of the body’s athletic performance
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PROVICELL GMBH

Eisenstrasse 1, D-57482 Wenden
Markus Junge
Email: markus.junge@provicell.com

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